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Evaluation of smoke-free legislation: publications


Haw SJ, Gruer L, Amos A, et al. Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places: how will we evaluate the impact? (external website), 'Journal of Public Health' 2006; 28(1) :24-30

Petticrew M, Semple S, Hilton S, et al. Covert observation in practice: lessons from the evaluation of the prohibition of smoking in public places in Scotland (external website), ´BMC Public Health´ 2007; 7: 204

CHETS (Changes in Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke) study

Akhtar PC, Currie DB, Currie CE, et al. Changes in child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (CHETS) study after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland: national cross sectional survey (external website), ´BMJ´ 2007; 335: 545-49

Akhtar PC, Haw SJ, Currie DB, et al. Smoking restrictions in the home and second-hand smoke exposure among primary schoolchildren before and after introduction of the Scottish smoke-free legislation (external website), ´Tobacco Control´ 2009; 18: 409-415

Akhtar P, Haw SJ, Levin K, et al. Socioeconomic differences in second-hand smoke exposure among children in Scotland after introduction of the smoke-free legislation (external website), ´Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health´ 2010; 64:341-346

back to Changes in Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke study details

Adult Exposure Study (Health Education Population Survey - HEPS)

Haw SJ, Gruer L. Changes in adult exposure to second-hand smoke following implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland (external website), ´BMJ´ 2007; 335: 549-52

back to Health Education Population Survey study details

BHETSE (Bar Workers´ Health and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure) study

Semple S, Creely KS, Naji A, et al. Second-hand smoke levels in Scottish pubs: the effect of smoke-free legislation (external website), ´Tobacco Control´ 2007; 16: 127-32

Hilton S, Semple S, Miller BG, et al. Expectations and changing attitudes of bar workers before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland (external website), ´BMC Public Health´ 2007; 7: 206

Semple S, MacCalman L, Atherton Naji A, et al. Bar workers´ exposure to second-hand smoke: The effect of Scottish smoke-free legislation on occupational exposure (external website), ´Annals of Occupational Hygiene´ 2007; 51(7): 571-580

Hilton S, Cameron J, MacLean A, et al. Observations from behind the bar: changing patrons´ behaviours in response to smoke-free legislation in Scotland (external website), ´BMC Public Health´ 2008; 8:238

Ayres JG, Semple S, MacCalman L, et al. Bar workers´ health and environmental tobacco smoke exposure (BHETSE): symptomatic improvement in bar staff following smoke-free legislation in Scotland (external website), ´Occupational and Environmental Medicine´ 2009; 66: 339-46

Semple S, Naji A, Haw S, Ayres J. Care home workers´ exposure to SHS: A Short summary of findings (external website), ´Occupational and Environmental Medicine´ 2009; 66: 639-640

Semple S, Van Tongeren M, Galea KS, et al. UK Smoke-free Legislation: Changes in PM2.5 Concentrations in bars in Scotland, England, and Wales (external website), The Annals of Occupational Hygiene 2010;54:272-280

back to Bar Workers´ Health and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure study details

STOPIT (Study of public place intervention on tobacco intervention)

Pell JP, Haw S, Cobbe S, et al. Smoke-free legislation and hospitalisations for acute coronary syndrome (external website), ´New England Journal of Medicine´ 2008; 359: 482-91. Voted the top paper of 2008 by the American Heart Association

Pell JP, Haw SJ, Cobbe SM, et al. Validity of self-reported smoking status: comparison of patients admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome and the general population (external website), ´Nicotine and Tobacco Research´ 2008; 10(5): 861-6

Pell JP, Haw S, Cobbe S, et al. Second-hand smoke exposure and survival following acute coronary syndrome: prospective cohort study of 1261 consecutive admissions among never-smokers (external website),´Heart´ 2009; 95:1415-1418

back to Study of public place intervention on tobacco intervention study details

ITC (International Tobacco Control UK Scotland) study

Hyland A, Hassan LM, Higabee C et al. The impact of smoke-free legislation in Scotland: results from the ITC Scotland/UK longtudinal surveys (external website), ´European Journal of Public Health´ 2009; 19:198-205

back to International Tobacco Control study details

Qualitative community study and Qualitative study of smoking in the home

Phillips R, Amos A, Ritchie D, et al. (2007). Smoking in the home after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland: qualitative study (external website), ´BMJ´ 2007; 335: 553-57

Phillips R, Amos A, Ritchie D, et al. (2007)´Not in front of the children´: A quantitative study of smoking in the home after the Scottish Smoke-free Legislation. British Medical Journal 2007, 335: 553

Martin C, Ritchie D, Amos A. (February 2008). ´Evaluation of the smoke-free legislation in Scotland: qualitative community study Final Report´

Amos A, Phillips R, Ritchie D, et al. (February 2008) ´Qualitative Study of Smoking in the Home. Final Report´

Ritchie D, Amos A, Phillips R, et al. (2009). Action to achieve smoke-free homes - an exploration of experts´ views (external website), ´BMC Public Health´ 2009; 9: 112

Robinson J, Ritchie D, Amos A, et al. (2010). Waiting until they got home’: Gender, smoking and tobacco exposure in households in Scotland (external website), `Social Science and Medicine’; Vol. 71(5): 884-890

Ritchie D, Amos A, Martin C (2010). But it just has that sort of feel about it, a leper. Stigma, smoke-free legislation and public health (external website), Nicotine & Tobacco Research 12(6): 622-629

Ritchie D, Amos A, Martin C (2010). Public Places after smoke-free - a qualitative exploration of the changes in smoking behaviour (external website),`Health & Place’ 16 (3), 461-469

Robinson J, Ritchie D, Amos A, et al. (2011). Volunteered, negotiated, enforced: Family politics and the regulation of home smoking (external website),`Sociology of Health and Illness’; Vol. 33(1): 66-80

Back to Qualitative community study details and Qualitative study of smoking in the home

Qualitative bar study

Eadie D, Heim D, MacAskill S, et al. (December 2007). ´Qualitative study of changes in smoking (and drinking) behaviour in contrasting communities following legislation on the prohibition of smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland´

Eadie D, Heim D, MacAskill S, et al. A qualitative analysis of compliance with smoke-free legislation in community bars in Scotland: implications for public health (external website), ´Addiction´ 2008; 103(6): 1019-26

Heim D, Ross A, Eadie D, et al. Public health or social impacts? A qualitative analysis of attitudes towards the smoke-free legislation in Scotland (external website),´Nicotine and Tobacco Research´ 2009; 11:1424-1430

Eadie D, MacAskill S, Heim D, et al. Responding to change: How did bar workers adapt to the smoke-free legislation in Scotland? (external website), ´International Journal of Environmental Health Research´ 2010; 20; 13-26

back to Qualitative Bar study details

Analysis of routine datasets (health, behavioural and economic)

Lewis SA, Haw SJ, McNeill AD. The impact of the 2006 Scottish Smoke-Free Legislation on sales of nicotine replacement therapy ´Nicotine and Tobacco Research´ 2008; 10: 1789-92

Mackay D, Haw S, Ayres JG, et al. Smoke-free Legislation and Hospitalisations for Childhood Asthma (external website), New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 363:1139-1145

Mackay DF, Haw S, Newby DE, Langhorne P, Lloyd SM, et al. (2013). Impact of Scotland’s Comprehensive, Smoke-Free Legislation on Stroke (external website), PLoS ONE 8(5): e62597. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062597

Mackay DF, Haw S, Pell JP (2011). Impact of Scottish Smoke-Free Legislation on Smoking Quit Attempts and Prevalence (external website), PLoS ONE 6(11): e26188. Epub 2011 Nov 16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026188.

Mackay DF, Nelson SM, Haw SJ, Pell JP (2012). Impact of Scotland’s Smoke-Free Legislation on Pregnancy Complications: Retrospective Cohort Study (external website), PLoS Med 9(3): e1001175. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001175

Linked reviews, syntheses and meta-analyses

Pierce JP, Leon ME, Bettcher D, et al. on behalf of the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France). Effectiveness of smoke-free policies - An IARC Review of actions to reduce exposure to carcinogens in second-hand smoke (external website), Handbook Volume 13 Working Group, IARC Secretariat, 2008, Vol. 9

Pell JP, Haw S. The triumph of national smoke-free legislation (external website), ´Heart´ 2009; 95: 1377-1379

Goodman PG, Haw S, Kabir Z, et al. Are there health benefits associated with comprehensive smoke-free laws (external website), ´International Journal of Public Health´ 2009; 1661-8564

Kabir Z, Alpert HR, Goodman PG, Haw S, et al. Effect of smoke-free home and workplace policies on second-hand smoke exposure levels in children: an evidence summary (external website), ´Pediatric Health´ 2010; 4: 391-403

Mackay DF, Irfan MO, Haw S, et al. Meta-analysis of the effect of comprehensive smoke-free legislation on acute coronary events (external website), ´Heart´ 2010; 96: 1525-1530

Linked studies and papers

Richmond L, Haw S, Pell JP. Impact of socioeconomic deprivation and type of facility on perceptions of the Scottish smoke-free legislation (external website), ´Journal of Public Health´ 2007; 29: 376-78

Hastie CE, Haw S, Pell JP. Impact of smoking cessation and lifetime exposure on C-reactive protein (external website),´Nicotine and Tobacco Research´ 2008; 10(4): 637-642

Reynolds RM, walker BR, Haw S, et al. Low serum cortisol predicts early death following Acute Myocardial Infarctio (external website),´Critical Care Medicine´ 2010; 38:973-975

Pell JP, Tavernier G, Haw S. A pilot study to explore whether endotoxins play a role in the association between environmental tobacco smoke and non-respiratory, smoking related diseases (external website), ´International Journal of Epidemiology´ 2011; 40: 1128-1129

View commissioned research on smoke-free legislation

Book chapters

Woodward A, Haw S. Reductions in exposure to second-hand smoke and effects on health due to restrictions on smoking in ´IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Tobacco Control, Vol. 13: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smoke-free Policies´ (external website), Lyon: IARC 2009

Haw S, Mackie L. ´Fresh Air´ in Barlow J. (Ed) ´Substance Misuse - Policy and Practice Implementation. Research Highlights in Social Work (external website), London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers 2009

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Updated 21st July 2014

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