NHS Health Scotland
Outcome Indicators
1.1 Rationale  that  activities to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours need to be specifically targeted.

Activities to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours need to be targeted at the whole population, people with or at risk of mental health problems, pregnant women and those in deprived communities.

People with a diagnosis of schizophrenia are more likely to smoke, less likely to be physically active and more likely to have diets high in fat and low in fibre than the general population.[1] There is growing evidence of increased morbidity and mortality as a result of obesity amongst people with bipolar disorder.[2]

Alcohol, tobacco and drug use during pregnancy increases the likelihood of premature delivery, low birth weight, long-term neurological and cognitive-emotional development problems. Premature birth and low birth weight are known risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes and psychiatric disorders. Substance abuse by the mother is also associated with the offspring becoming dependent on substances during adolescence and young adulthood.[3]

People living in deprived communities are at greater risk of mental health problems than those who live in more affluent communities.[4]


  1. NICE (2009). NICE clinical guideline 82: Schizophrenia: Core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in adults in primary and secondary care. NICE: London. 

  2. NICE (2006). NICE clinical guideline 38: Bipolar disorder: The management of bipolar disorder in adults, children and adolescents, in primary and secondary care. NICE: London.

  3. Hosman C & Jané-Llopis E (2005). The Evidence of Effective Interventions for Mental Health Promotion. In H Herman, S Saxena & R Moodie (Eds). Promoting mental health: Concepts, emerging evidence and practice. WHO: Geneva. http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/MH_Promotion_Book.pdf  

  4. Scottish Government (2008). Equally Well: Report of the ministerial task force on health inequalities. Scottish Government: Edinburgh.